Outcomes following severe hand foot and mouth disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Eben Jones, Timesh D. Pillay, Fengfeng Liu, Li Luo, Juan Carlos Bazo-Alvarez, Chen Yuan, Shanlu Zhao, Qi Chen, Yu Li, Qiaohong Liao, Hongjie Yu, H. Rogier van Doorn, Saraswathy Sabanathan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is associated with acute neurological disease in children. This study aimed to estimate the burden of long-term sequelae and death following severe HFMD. Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis pooled all reports from English and Chinese databases including MEDLINE and Wangfang on outbreaks of clinically diagnosed HFMD and/or laboratory-confirmed EV-A71 with at least 7 days’ follow-up published between 1st January 1966 and 19th October 2015. Two independent reviewers assessed the literature. We used a random effects meta-analysis to estimate cumulative incidence of neurological sequelae or death. Studies were assessed for methodological and reporting quality. PROSPERO registration number: 10.15124/CRD42015021981. Findings: 43 studies were included in the review, and 599 children from 9 studies were included in the primary analysis. Estimated cumulative incidence of death or neurological sequelae at maximum follow up was 19.8% (95% CI:10.2%, 31.3%). Heterogeneity (Iˆ2) was 88.57%, partly accounted for by year of data collection and reporting quality of studies. Incidence by acute disease severity was 0.00% (0.00, 0.00) for grade IIa; 17.0% (7.9, 28.2) for grade IIb/III; 81.6% (65.1, 94.5) for grade IV (p = 0.00) disease. Conclusions: HFMD with neurological involvement is associated with a substantial burden of long-term neurological sequelae. Grade of acute disease severity was a strong predictor of outcome. Strengths of this study include its bilingual approach and clinical applicability. Future prospective and interventional studies must use rigorous methodology to assess long-term outcomes in survivors. Funding: There was no specific funding for this study. See below for researcher funding.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)763-773
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Paediatric Neurology
Volume22
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2018

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