Since Rhinella sp. toads produce bioactive substances, some species have been used in traditional medicine and magical practices by ancient cultures in Peru. During several decades, the Rhinella horribilis toad was confused with the invasive toad Rhinella marina, a species documented with extensive toxinological studies. In contrast, the chemical composition and biological effects of the parotoid gland secretions (PGS) remain still unknown for R. horribilis. In this work, we determine for the first time 55 compounds from the PGS of R. horribilis, which were identified using HPLC-MS/MS. The crude extract inhibited the proliferation of A549 cancer cells with IC50 values of 0.031 ± 0.007 and 0.015 ± 0.001 µg/mL at 24 and 48 h of exposure, respectively. Moreover, it inhibited the clonogenic capacity, increased ROS levels, and prevented the etoposide-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the effect of R. horribilis poison secretion was by cell cycle blocking before of G2/M-phase checkpoint. Fraction B was the most active and strongly inhibited cancer cell migration. Our results indicate that the PGS of R. horribilis are composed of alkaloids, bufadienolides, and argininyl diacids derivatives, inhibiting the proliferation and migration of A549 cells.