Assaf sheep wool is not used as a textile fiber because of its high keratin content and thickness. This sheep is only used for its milk and meat production, and its wool can be used as a biosorbent for the removal of hydrocarbons. Thus, this research studied the effect of the use of Assaf sheep wool for the bioretention of hydrocarbons present in water bodies. For the experimental development, the wool was characterized and synthetic water composed of a mixture of 6 L of hydrocarbon (petroleum) and 20 L of water was used. The treatment was carried out with different doses of wool (40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 g) arranged in pads of 15 cm x 10 cm, and worked as a function of pH and contact time. The wool characterization results showed a diameter of 34 µm, which is considered thick and not useful for textile production. On the other hand, the maximum bioretention (94.10 %) of hydrocarbons was achieved with a dosage of 120 g and a contact time of 150 s. Finally, it is concluded that Assaf sheep wool is a good absorbent for bioretention of hydrocarbons (petroleum), and could be applied in water sources contaminated with these compounds.